World History, Humans and the Matrix Through the Lens of Legends – Part 35

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In 410 AD, raiders from Ireland, primarily the Uí Liatháin and Laigin tribes, sacked the coasts of Wales, taking both slaves and plunder.
Also, around this time, one of the first Anglo-Saxon settlements in Britain, Mucking, was said to have been established along the mouth of the Thames River.

In August, Alaric I and his armies of Visigoths sacked Rome after a third siege. As the Roman Empire had enlisted a lot of its enemies into their legions, the Salarian Gates were opened by defectors and slaves, allowing the Goths to loot the city for three days (according to Augustine in his book ‘The City of God.’)
It was said that only two churches were burned, and people who took refuge in churches were usually spared. Many of the Romans who survived the sacking fled to Africa, or to the Eastern Empire. It was the first time in 800 years, since 390 BC, that Rome had fallen to an enemy. Again, this was another sign of the Roman Empire being in a spiral of decline.

As the Visigoths left Rome and the Italian peninsula and moved towards Gaul, Galla Placidia, daughter of Theodosius I, was captured and became hostage.

Alaric I then marched southwards with plans of invading Africa. But it is said that a storm destroyed his Gothic fleet and many of his soldiers drown. Alaric himself was said to have fallen ill and died in Cosenza, where his body was burned along with his personal treasure under the riverbed of the Busento. Alaric was succeeded by his brother-in-law Ataulf, who became the new king of the Visigoths.

Meanwhile, at the Council of Seleucia, Persian Christians created a national church and adopted the Roman Catholic Nicene Creed, spreading the Roman Saturn worship disguised as Christianity.

In 411 AD, Emperor Honorius sent two Roman generals to deal with the usurper Constantine III in Gaul. They killed Constantine’s general Gerontius in Spain, and captured Constantine III who later was executed in Ravenna.
Following the defeat of Constantine III, the Germanic Burgundians and the Gallic nobility proclaimed Jovinus, a Gallo-Roman senator, as the emperor of the Western Roman Empire.
The new King Ataulf then led his Goths into Gaul by invitation of Emperor Honorius, who made a promise to recognize a Visigothic Kingdom if Ataulf defeated several usurpers who threatened the Roman Empire.

In 412 AD, the newly proclaimed Emperor Jovinus elevated his brother Sebastianus as co-emperor (Augustus) and took control of Gaul.
Meanwhile, King Ataulf and his Goths moved into the south of Gaul. He established his residence at Narbonne, and finalized his alliance with Emperor Honorius against the usurper Jovinus.

In north-western Africa, the governor Heraclianus started a revolt against Honorius and proclaimed himself Augustus. He interrupted the grain supply to Rome. Honorius condemned him and his supporters to death with an edict at Ravenna.

In 413 AD, Heraclianus, the latest Roman usurper, landed in Italy with a large army to march against Emperor Honorius. He was defeated in Umbria and fled to Carthage, where he was put to death by the Roman envoys of Honorius.

In Gaul, the Visigoths led by King Ataulf, conquered the towns of Toulouse and Bordeaux. After a successful siege of Valence, the usurper Jovinus and his brother Sebastianus was both captured. After settling in Narbonne, they were both executed and their heads were sent to Honorius’ court at Ravenna.

Meanwhile, Augustine of Hippo, age 59, began to write his spiritual book ‘De Civitate Dei’ (‘City of God,’) as a reply to the claim that Christianity was responsible for the decline of the Roman Empire.

In 414 AD, the once hostage Galla Placidia, the half-sister of emperor Honorius, was married to the Visigothic king Ataulf at Narbonne. After they had killed Jovinus, the Visigoths proclaimed Priscus Attalus as rival emperor at Bordeaux, in order to impose their terms on Honorius of a Visigothic Kingdom.
However, Honorius, feeling untouchable at Ravenna backed out on his deal and sent orders to general Constantinus to deal with the Visigoths.

In 415 AD, Constantius, the Roman general, forced the Visigoths out of Gaul. He captured the usurper Priscus Attalus in Bordeaux and sent him under military escort to Emperor Honorius in Ravenna to be openly executed.

In turn, the Visigoths invaded the Iberian Peninsula and began to conquer territory previously taken by the Vandals. King Ataulf and his pregnant wife Galla Placidia relocated to Barcelona. Their infant son, Theodosius, died in infancy, eliminating an opportunity for a Roman-Visigothic bloodline. Ataulf was later assassinated in the palace while taking a bath. Sigeric succeeded him, but after a reign of seven days he was also murdered.

In the autumn, Wallia, brother of Ataulf, became king of the Visigoths. He immediately accepted a peace treaty with emperor Honorius in return for a supply of 600,000 measures of grain. After the negotiations he sent Galla Placidia to Rome with hostages.

In 416 AD, the Visigoths continued their invasion of Hispania. King Wallia occupied the gold mines at Las Médulas, and forced Jewish citizens to convert to Christianity.

In 417 AD, the Visigoths were granted Aquitaine, and became allies of the Western Roman Empire. King Wallia established his capital at Toulouse.

Meanwhile, Pope Innocent I died after a 16-year reign in which he had increased the power of the Roman Catholic Church and the seat of Rome by restoring relations between the ‘sees of Rome’ and Antioch, enforced celibacy of the clergy, and maintained the right of the bishop of Rome to judge appeals from other churches.

In 418 AD, by encouragement from Emperor Honorius, Wallia, king of the Visigoths, re-conquered Hispania for the Roman Empire – forcing the Vandals to flee towards the south. The Visigothic territory in Gaul now extended from the Garonne to the Loire, and became known as the Visigothic Kingdom.
Later in the year, Theodoric I, Alaric’s son-in-law, succeeded Wallia and became king of the Visigoths

In early 421 AD, Constantius III was appointed co-emperor (Augustus) with his disliked and incompetent brother-in-law, Honorius, and became the real ruler of the Western Roman Empire.

On March 25, Venice was founded with the dedication of the first church, San Giacomo, at the islet of Rialto.

In September, Constantius III died suddenly of what was said to have been illness, but he was likely murdered by agents of Honorius. Constantius wife Galla Placidia became, for the second time, a widow. She departed with her children Grata Honoria and Valentinian to the court of Constantinople.

In Europe, the Huns began to move again and attacked the dioceses of Dacia and Thrace (Balkans.)

In the eastern Roman Empire, Theodosius II started a war against the Sassanids, sending an expeditionary force under command of Ardaburius to invade Mesopotamia.

In late 422 AD, after almost two years of war, Emperor Theodosius II signed a 100-year peace treaty with Persia. Also, Theodosius paid an annual tribute of 350 pounds of gold to the Huns in order to buy peace.

In 423 AD, Emperor Honorius, age 38, died at Ravenna of what was said to have been pulmonary edema, but likely he was assassinated due to his incompetence and scheming which had hurt the Empire. With no children to claim the throne, Joannes, the “chief notary,” seized the throne of the Western Roman Empire, and was declared emperor. Among his supporters were Flavius Aetius, a Roman general. Joannes’ rule was accepted in the dioceses of Gaul, Hispania and Italia, but not in Africa.
During the winter, Emperor Theodosius II also refused to recognize Joannes as emperor, and began preparations for war.

In 424 AD, Emperor Theodosius II nominated his cousin Valentinian, age 5, the imperial title ‘nobilissimus Caesar’ of the Western Roman Empire. Valentinian was then betrothed to Theodosius’s own daughter Licinia Eudoxia, who was only 2 years old.

The newly declared Roman Emperor Joannes sent his general Flavius Aetius to ask the Huns for assistance against Theodosius II. After negotiating, Flavius amassed a large force of Huns to fight by their side.

In the summer of 425 AD, before Flavius could return with his force, Joannes was defeated at the fortified city of Ravenna and brought to Aquileia. After a humiliating parade on a donkey at the amusement of the pleb, he was publicly executed.
Valentinian III, the six-year-old son of Galla Placidia, was then installed as emperor (Augustus) of the Western Roman Empire. Due to his young age, the real power was put in the hands of Galla Placidia who became regent.

In late October, Flavius Aetius returned to northern Italy with a force of 60,000 Huns. As Joannes has been killed, he reached a compromise with Galla Placidia, in return for obtaining the rank commander-in-chief.

In Asia, Buddhism began to spread to Southeastern regions of Asia.

In 426 AD, Flavius Aetius, as Roman general of Galla Placidia, started a 10-year campaign against the Visigoths in southern Gaul.

In 427 AD, Flavius Aetius, defeated the Visigoths under King Theodoric I, who were besieging the strategic city of Arles.

In Europe, the Roman province of Pannonia Prima was assimilated into the Hunnic Empire. Also, the white Huns, the Ephthalites, invaded Western Asia and reduced the Sasanian Empire’s threat to the Eastern Roman Empire.

In 428 AD, Chlodio, the king of the Salian Franks, invaded Northern Gaul and defeated the Roman army at Cambrai. He extended his kingdom south to the river Somme and made Tournai (present-day Belgium) his residence. The Frankish expansion changed the borders, and was the initial founding of Francia — The Kingdom of the Franks, the largest post-Roman kingdom in Western Europe (not to be confused with present-day France.)

In 429 AD, the Vandals, who had been driven south, now led by Genseric, invaded North Africa. The Vandal fleet raided the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea, and blocked the grain and oil supply to Italy. Genseric seized lands from the Berbers and destroyed churches all over Mauretania.

Meanwhile, Emperor Theodosius II started his work on the Codex Theodosianus in Constantinople — a compilation of the laws of the Roman Empire under the Christian emperors.

During the spring of 430 AD, the Vandals under King Genseric extended their power in North Africa along the Mediterranean Sea, and they laid siege to Hippo Regius. During the siege, Augustine died at the age of 75, leaving behind his monumental work ‘The City of God’ and many other books and documents that would have a huge influence on Christianity.

In 431 AD, Hippo Regius became the new capital of the Vandal Kingdom. Emperor Theodosius II sent an imperial fleet to Carthage with an army under command of Aspar. On their way to Carthage, they were intercepted by the Vandals and Aspar managed to negotiate a temporary peace treaty with Vandal King Genseric, maintaining Roman authority in Carthage.

In 432 AD, the Huns were united by King Rugila on the Hungarian Plain. He also made sure to obtain annual peace payments from the Eastern Roman Empire.

In Brittania, the Roman Britain-born missionary Saint Patrick was consecrated as bishop and began to convert the Irish to Christianity.

In 433 AD, Flavius Aetius returned to Italy with the support of the Huns. He gained control over the young emperor Valentinian III, and became his “protector.”

In 434 AD, Flavius Aetius, in the service of Emperor Valentinian III, began to amass power in Rome (which would continue for 20 years.) He made a pact with the Huns and allowed them to settle in Pannonia, along the Sava River.

In the eastern Roman Empire, the Huns under Rugila laid destruction to Thrace and moved on steadily towards Constantinople.

And in Africa, the Vandals attacked the Roman general Aspar and forced him to withdraw back to Constantinople.

Also, Attila, the new king of the Huns, consolidated his power in the Hungarian capital on the site of Buda (present-day Budapest.) He jointly ruled the kingdom with his brother Bleda.

To be continued in the next part.

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